Since the last research update, IC3 researchers identified warning signs for smart contract pyramid schemes, released a framework for automated analysis of economic security in smart contracts, and more! Registration is open for the Science of Blockchain Conference (SBC '22).
We are excited to announce the Science of Blockchain Conference 2022 (SBC'22, formerly called the Stanford Blockchain Conference), held jointly by the Stanford Center for Blockchain Research and IC3 and co-chaired by Dan Boneh (Stanford) and Ari Juels (Cornell Tech, IC3)!
See more and register on the CBR Website.
The authors gathered warning signs that can be useful in determining if a project may be a smart contract pyramid scheme rather than a legitimate blockchain-based application.
Full paper: Arxiv
Basil: Breaking up BFT with ACID (transactions) will be presented at SOSP ‘21 (Oct 26-29th)!
The authors present Basil, the first transactional, leaderless Byzantine Fault Tolerant key-value store. Basil leverages ACID transactions to scalably implement the abstraction of a trusted shared log in the presence of Byzantine actors, executes non-conflicting operations in parallel, and commits transactions in a single round-trip during fault-free executions.
Florian Suri-Payer (Cornell University), Matthew Burke (Cornell University), Yunhao Zhang (Cornell University), Zheng Wang (Cornell University), Lorenzo Alvisi (Cornell University), Natacha Crooks (UC Berkeley)

The authors propose Shard Scheduler, a system for object placement and migration in account-based sharded blockchains, which calculates optimal placement and decides of object migrations across shards and supports complex multi-account transactions caused by smart contracts.
Michał Król (City, University of London), Onur Ascigil (University College London), Sergi Rene (University College London), Albert Sonnino (Facebook Novi), Mustafa Al-Bassam (LazyLedger), Etienne Rivière (UCLouvain)

The authors present a comparison of PoS longest chain protocols that are based on Single Secret Leader Elections (SSLE) – that elect exactly one leader per round – versus those based on Probabilistic Leader Elections (PLE) – where one leader is elected on expectation. They show that when considering the private attack, the security gained from using SSLE is substantial and when considering grinding attacks the security threshold is increased by 10%.
Sarah Azouvi (Protocol Lab) and Daniele Cappelletti (Politecnico di Torino)

IC3 was proud to be a sponsor of ACM AFT ‘21!
The authors introduce the Clockwork Finance Framework (CFF), a general purpose, formal verification framework for mechanized reasoning about the economic security properties of composed decentralized-finance (DeFi) smart contracts.
Kushal Babel, Philip Daian, Mahimna Kelkar, and Ari Juels (All Cornell Tech, Cornell University, and IC3)
IC3 Faculty Member Bryan Ford presented “Digital Personhood: Towards Technology that Securely Serves People” at the VISP Distinguished Lecture Series!
Lecture 8 of the DeFi MOOC featured IC3 Co-Director Ari Juels presenting about oracles.
See past recordings and upcoming lectures on the course page.
Eight papers by IC3 authors were presented at Consensus Days '21, organized by Protocol Labs Research's newly formed ConsensusLab!
See available abstracts in the IC3 Twitter thread.
Please send any new research or presentations to to be included in the next research update.
Best wishes, 
Sarah Allen
IC3 Community Manager
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