Emerging Infections Research to Improve Global Health
Our Work: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute leads the field with cutting edge vaccine research against infectious diseases that impact global health. We conduct basic and translational research to develop novel vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics for diseases such as HIV-1, influenza, tuberculosis, malaria, ebola, cytomegalovirus and zika flavivirus. Several of our basic science discoveries are currently being produced in Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) facilities for early phase vaccine trials.

Our Mission: To develop vaccines and therapeutics against diseases of global importance while training the next generation of scientists.
Our Values: Collaboration, Excellence and Innovation
Our Members: 18 Primary Investigators | 207 Staff Members

Our Services : Shared Resources
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Message from the Director
2019 has been a productive and rewarding year for the Duke Human Vaccine Institute. As we continue to grow as an Institute, it is important to reflect on our achievements, portfolios and discoveries as we move into the new year.

The DHVI received a $129 million NIAID grant to complete our HIV vaccine work. We also received a contract from NIAID for a universal flu vaccine that could be worth $400 million over the next few years. It is truly an honor for DHVI to have the opportunity to contribute to society by working on these two important vaccines. Both of these awards, and many other awards to faculty and staff, signify the hard work and accomplishments of all this year in DHVI.

Please enjoy this brief review of highlighted achievements, programs and ongoing studies from 2019.

Bart Haynes, M.D.
Director, DHVI
Awards & Contracts
DHVI Mentoring & Training Program (DTMP)
The DHVI Training and Mentoring Program trains and mentors undergraduates, graduates, and post-graduate research fellows who work in concert with Duke faculty and staff. The program, led by Co-Directors, Drs. Maria Blasi and Wilton Williams , provides trainees a collaborative research environment to academically support and train the next generation of socially conscious, superb research scientists who are dedicated to solving societal problems.

The DTMP aims to expand each trainee's knowledge base through mentoring, research seminars & lectures, journal clubs, research ethics workshops, scientific writing and presentation workshops, independent research presentations and collaborative research.
The DTMP currently includes 13 postdoctoral researchers, 14 graduates, and 7 undergraduates.
DTMP Research Areas
Antibody Discovery, Bacteriology, Bioformatics & Data Science, Clinical Trials, Diagnostics & Biomarkers, Genetic, Genomics & Gene Regulation, Immune Monitory, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiome, Mother to Child Transmission, Protein Engineering, Structural Biology, Quality Oversight, Vaccine Development and Virology
2019 Meeting & Conference Highlights

Postdoctoral Associate Dr. Ashley Nelson received an Early Investigator Travel award to present her work on a vaccine regimen to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mother-to-child at the 37th Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS.

Postdoctoral Associate Dr. Ria Goswami was awarded the New Investigator Scholarship to present her work on HIV viral load and antibody responses at the 2019 Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections.

PhD Candidate Lindsay Dahora presented her work on typhoid fever immune correlates at the 2019 Next Generation Rotavirus Vaccine Developer's Meeting.

Postdoctoral Associate Dr. Marina Tuyishime presented her work on eliminating HIV-1 infected cells by ADCC-mediating monoclonal antibodies at the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) full group meeting and the 9th International Workshop on HIV Persistence during Therapy.

Senior Research Associate Dr. Yi-Yi Lin won the poster prize at the 2019 Miami Winter Symposium: Evolving Concepts in HIV and Emerging Viral Infections, for his poster entitled, "Persistence of Antigen Expression is Associate with Long-Term Immunity Induced by Integrase-Defective Lentiviral Vector (IDLV)".

MD-PhD candidate, Jennifer Jenks presented her work on immune responses against CMV acquisition at the International Herpesvirus Workshop, IDSA IDweek Conference, the International CMV Workshop and the Keystone Symposia.

Postdoctoral Associate Dr. Stephanie Langel was one of three winners of the postdoctoral poster competition at the Duke Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology's annual retreat.
2019 Grants & Scholarships

Postdoctoral Associate Dr. Ashley Nelson
received the Duke Clinical Translational Science Award Postdoctoral TL1 for her project, "Determinants of neutralizing antibody breadth in HIV-infected children".

Postdoctoral Associate Dr. Ria Goswami received the Children's Miracle Network Hospital Research Award for her project, "Identification of immune pathways involved in reducing the HIV reservoir in pediatric tonsillar cells via a novel Hsp90-inhibitor treatment".
MD-PhD candidate Jennifer Jenks received three awards this year: The 2020 Infectious Disease Society of America G.E.R.M for her project, "Immune correlates of protection against congenital cytomegalovirus transmission in HIV+ mother/infant cohort", the CMV Scholars Research Award for her project, "Humoral immune correlates for cytomegalovirus gb/MF59 vaccine against viral acquisition" and the International CMV Workshop Trainee Award for project, "Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses Differ in Two Historical Cytomegalovirus gB/MF59 Vaccine Cohorts".
PhD candidate and visiting graduate student Caesar Lopez Angel received the NIH HVTN Research and Mentoring Program Scholar for his project, "Defining the role of immune heterogeneity and preexisting CMV immunity in protective HIV-1 vaccination".
Learn about DTMP Co-Director Maria Blasi, Ph.D. in our Staff Spotlight
Dr. Maria Blasi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at Duke University Medical Center and Co-Director of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute Mentoring and Training Program (DTMP).

Click here to read.
Highlighted Publications
K.O. Saunders, B.F. Haynes et al., Targeted selection of HIV-specific antibody mutations by engineering B cell maturation. Science 366(6470) (2019). doi:10.1126/science.aay7199

M. Blasi, M. Klotman et al. , Detection of Donor's HIV Strain in HIV-Positive Kidney Transplant Recipient. New England Journal of Medicine, in Press (2019)
B.F. Haynes, J. Mascola et al. , Multiple roles for HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies. Sci Transl Med 11 , 516 (2019). doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz2686

C.C. Labranch, D.C. Montefiori et al ., Neutralization-guided design of HIV-1 envelope trimers with high affinity for the unmutated common ancestor of CH235 lineage CD4bs broadly neutralizing antibodies. PLos Pathog 15(9) (2019) , doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008026
F. Veglia, D.I. Gabrilovich et al ., Fatty acid transporter 2 reprograms neutrophils in cancer. Nature 569 , 73–78 (2019). doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1118-2
D.R. Martinez, S.R. Permar et al ., Fc Characteristics Mediate Selective Placental Transfer of IgG in HIV-Infected Women.  Cell 178 , 190-201(2019)  doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.05.046.
R. Goswami, S.R. Permar et al ., Analytical Treatment Interruption after Short-Term Antiretroviral Therapy in a Postnatally Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Infant Rhesus Macaque Model.  MBio 10 (2019)  doi: 10.1128/mBio.01971-19.
 L.P. Hale, G.D. Sempowksi et al ., Late effects of total body irradiation on hematopoietic recovery and immune function in rhesus macaques . PLoS One 14 (2019) e0210663. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210663
T.C. Bradley, B.F. Haynes et al . , RAB11FIP5 Expression and Altered Natural Killer Cell Function Are Associated with Induction of HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses. Cell 175(2) , 387-399 (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.064

S. Neidich, G.D. Tomaras et al ., Antibody Fc effector functions and IgG3 associate with decreased HIV-1 risk. J Clin Invest 129(11) , 4838-4849 (2019). doi.org/10.1172/JCI126391

L. Dahora, G.D. Tomaras et al ., IgA and IgG1 Specific to Vi Polysaccharide of  Salmonella  Typhi Correlate With Protection Status in a Typhoid Fever Controlled Human Infection Model. Front. Immunol. 10 , doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02582

 I.D. Shterev, G.D. Sempowski et al ., Bayesian Multi-Plate High-Throughput Screening of Compounds. Sci Rep 8 , 9551 (2018). doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27531

R. Henderson, S.M. Alam et al ., Selection of immunoglobulin elbow region mutations impacts interdomain conformational flexibility in HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. Nat Commun 10 (1) , 654 (2019) doi:10.1038/s41467-019-08415-7
E.G. Wee, T. Hanke et al ., Parallel Induction of CH505 B Cell Ontogeny-Guided Neutralizing Antibodies and tHIVconsvX Conserved Mosaic-Specific T Cells against HIV-1. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 14 , 148-160 (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.omtm.2019.06.003
J.R. Francica, R.A. Seder et al ., Star nanoparticles delivering HIV-1 peptide minimal immunogens elicit near-native envelope antibody responses in nonhuman primates. PLoS Biol 17(6) (2019) . doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000328
C.W. Woods, E.B. Walter et al ., An observer blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase I dose escalation trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated West Nile virus Vaccine, HydroVax-001, in healthy adults . Vaccine 37, 4222-4230 (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.026
K. Wagh, B. Korber et al . , Completeness of HIV-1 Envelope Glycan Shield at Transmission Determines Neutralization Breadth. Cell Rep 25(4) , 893-908 (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.09.087
T. Hayashi, K. Nakachi et al . , Impact of early life exposure to ionizing radiation on influenza
vaccine response in an elderly Japanese cohort. Vaccine 36 , 6650-6659 (2018). doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.09.054
K. Wiehe, B.F. Haynes et al ., Functional Relevance of Improbable Antibody Mutations for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Development. Cell Host Microbe 23(6) , 759-765 (2019) doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.04.018
T. Nyanhete, G.D. Tomaras et al ., HLA class II-Restricted CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 Virus Controllers. Sci Rep 9 , 10165 (2019) doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46462-8

N. Pardi, D. Weissman et al ., Nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines induce potent T follicular helper and germinal center B cell responses. J Exp Med 15(6) , 1571-1588 (2018). doi: 10.1084/jem.20171450

M. Bonsignori, B.F. Haynes et al ., Inference of the VRC01 Antibody Lineage Unmutated Common Ancestor Reveals Alternative Pathways to Overcome a Key Glycan Barrier . Immunity 49 , 1162-1174 (2018). doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2018.10.015

 Click here for a comprehensive list of all DHVI publications.

New Affiliate Faculty Members
Assistant Professor of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology
Assistant Professor of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Assistant Professor of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Good Manufacturing Facility
Ongoing Clinical Trials
HVTN 115: A study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of EnvSeq-1 Envs adjuvanted with GLA-SE, administered alone or with DNA Mosaic-Tre env, in healthy, HIV-uninfected adult participants. Read more here .

HVTN 121: A clinical trial being performed at Duke and at the University of Alabama at Birmingham that is examining the safety of the alum-adjuvanted vaccine AIDSVAX B/E in participants who have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Read more here .

HVTN 123 : A study to compare the safety and immunogenicity of CH505TF gp120 produced from stably transfected cells to CH505TF gp120 produced from transiently transfected cells in healthy, HIV-1 uninfected adult participants

HVTN 133: A clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 MPER peptide liposome vaccine in healthy, HIV-uninfected adult participants

HVTN 135: A clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the HIV-1 CH505 transmitted/founder (TF) gp120 adjuvanted with GLA-SE in healthy, HIV-exposed infants

HVTN 106: A study to evaluate the safety and immune response to three DNA vaccines and a MVA-CMDR vaccine that may boost the immune response to the DNA vaccines in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults. Read more here .

Clinical Trials managed by the Duke Vaccine and Trials Unit (DTVU)
The Duke Vaccine and Trials Unit is a consortium of investigators committed to conducting clinical investigations related to the control and prevention of infectious disease with an overarching goal of furthering our understanding of vaccine immune responses, correlates of protection from infection and enhancing vaccine safety.

CISA Apnea : A multi-center study to assess apnea following vaccination in premature infants receiving their standard of care two-month vaccinations. Read more here.

14-1053 : An observational study to assess the prevalence and outcomes of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis (also referred to as Valley Fever (VF) Pneumonia or acute onset valley fever) in persons presenting with community acquired pneumonia. Recruitment will take place at sites in areas where VF is endemic, including Arizona and California. Read more here .

CISA Flublok : A study to evaluate the safety of Flublok®, the first recombinant inactivated influenza vaccine (RIV), and Flulaval, quadrivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), in pregnant women. This study will also evaluate adverse outcomes in infants, local and systemic reactogenicity, vaccine-related adverse events and immunogenicity following maternal RIV. Read more here .

16-0058 : A study to assess the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of Fosfomycin (6 g), delivered intravenously over three doses, following a bronchoscopy. Duke will enroll 30 subjects for this study.
18-0011 : A Duke specific site study to assess the sfaety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of two Quadrivalent seasonal Influenza vaccines (Flublok or Fluzone) with or without one of two adjuvants (AF03 or Advax-CpG55.2).

18-0010 : A natural history study of controlled influenza infection to assess the effect of pre-existing immunity on clinical and immunological responses. Subjects’ clinical manifestations, viral shedding and immunological responses will be characterized.

Click here for more information and additional DVTU studies.