Water quantity is one of the biggest challenges to productive ranching in the Northern Great Plains of Montana. As of June 22nd, 2022, the US Drought Monitor indicated that approximately 91% of Montana is in D0 (abnormally dry) to D3 (extremely dry). The challenges to cattle ranchers are two-fold. A 1,500-pound cow drinks about 8 gallons of water per day, and ranchers need to purchase or produce enough hay and/or stockpile winter forage in the form of grass to feed their cattle throughout the long Montana winter. Hay becomes difficult to grow and more expensive to purchase as precipitation levels decrease. Audubon Conservation Ranching is working to help ranchers alleviate water constraints on their ranches.